zoom_in Polish firms and the euro adoption

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Data illustration 

Above you can see chosen questions from our research. You can select the questions you are interested in from the drop-down menu.

Data are illustrated in four dimensions: industry, company size, voivodship, and exporter and non-exporter status. 

At the first glance graphs include "yes" and "no" answers, but you can click one of them to see the data more clearly. 



The EFIGE project was an inspiration for establishing a similar database in Poland within the project The euro introduction and competitiveness of the Polish enterprises conducted at the University of Warsaw and financed by the National Science Centre.

Thanks to the Memorandum of Understanding between the Bruegel think-thank and the University of Warsaw, the survey was based on the questionnaire used in the unique EFIGE survey.

Manufacturing firms with more than 10 employees in Poland were surveyed at the end of 2014 and mostly in early 2015 referring to 2013 and 2010-2013. Data was collected via the CATI method. We used mixed purposive and quota sampling methods in order to find a balance between sample representativeness, comparability to EFIGE data and research aims of the project.

The whole compiled database can be divided into two parts.

First, the Polish survey replicated 50 questions from the EFIGE questionnaire, choosing those which were “structural” in nature. They cover six areas of companies’ characteristics: 1. Structure of firms (company ownership, domestic and foreign control, management), 2. Workforce (skills, type of contracts, domestic vs. migrant workers, training), 3. Investment, technological innovation, R&D (and related financing), 4. Export and internationalization processes, 5. Market structure and competition, 6. Financial structure and bank-firm relationship. This subsample is representative in terms of industrial structure based on NACE 2 classification and at NUTS 2 regional level, but not in terms of size. Medium (50-249 employees) and large (more than 250) companies were oversampled.

Second, the questionnaire was extended to include respondents’ opinions on the consequences of the euro adoption in Poland. The firms were asked to assess the opportunities and risks associated with Poland’s accession to the euro area concerning internationalization, innovativeness, finances, competitiveness, exchange rate risk and exchange rate preferences. This subsample is not representative in terms of industrial structure based on NACE 2 classification and at NUTS 2 regional level. Medium (50-249 employees) and large (more than 250) companies were oversampled.

In the sample survey conducted on around 700 Polish manufacturing firms, units were drawn with unequal probabilities. We decided to disproportionately increase the selection probability of large firms (50 employees or more) because of their higher degree of internationalization[1]. To compensate for unequal sampling rates, weights needed to be applied to provide a link between observations from the sample and the entire population of firms’ summary measures such as means and proportions.

The weights are computed as the reciprocal of the probability of selection. In the present case, oversampling affected the selection probability not only across firms’ sizes but also across sectors of activity. Therefore we used data from the Eurostat on the number of enterprises in Polish manufacturing at the NACE 2-digit level broken down by size classes to calculate the inverse of probability of selection. It was calculated at the industry 2-digit level as the ratio of the share of firms of a given size class in the population divided by the corresponding share in the sample. Each observation in the sample was multiplied by this weight, which should yield unbiased estimates of population parameters.

Below we present data related to chosen questions in terms of companies` attitude to the euro influence on their activity.

Population measures for the wholesale enterprises - the only service sector in the sample - are based on unweighted observations.

Number of observations

Manufacturing – whole sample of 669-670 companies

Wholesale trade except of motor vehicles and motorcycles - 53 companies

[1] The population of firms was split into strata corresponding to 16 Polish regions (voivodships) because the probability of being selected into the sample was not equal for all members of the population. However, the sample design structure does not influence the construction of first-order statistical estimates such as means or ratios presented on this site.